Billiard Supplies – Five Accessories You Need For Your New Billiard Table

You’re about to break in your new billiard table. So far, you have invested in cues and balls in addition to the table. Depending on how advanced or amateur you are, you may need a lot or you may not need much at all.

Here are some items that you will need to help your game be more effective and keep your table in good condition:

o Billiard Cloth – Also known as felt, this is what is put on top of the table to help the balls flow smoothly. The cloth used on the table should be of good quality so that the balls can have a smooth roll across the table after each shot. This makes for good accuracy in the hole while playing.

A good quality cloth will stand until the test of time. It will not be subject to scuffs, tears and other damages. Billiard players will enjoy the game more when they know that they’re playing on quality material.

o Billiard Racks – These racks are triangular and diamond shaped. They are used to rack up the balls prior to a billiard game. For the most part, the triangular shaped one is used more often. They are the ones that most people are used to seeing.

They are used for different games of pool, such as eight-ball, one pocket, bank pool, straight pool, snooker and other billiard games. Diamond racks are usually reserved for nine ball games.

o Brush – A brush is needed to maintain the condition of your pool table. It is a great accessory to a pool table and it is not costly. The best kind of brush to get is one that is manufactured from horsehair.

A billiard brush can increase longevity of the table felt. The cloth stays smooth and any chalk residue is brushed away. People that have sensitive skin may not benefit from having this type of brush. The chalk or talcum residue combined with dirt and moisture, can trigger itching hands.

o Pool Table Covers – You must have a cover to protect your investment. Pool table covers are used to protect your table from dust, moisture, humidity. A cover is imperative because it also protects your table from spills and unnecessary damage when it’s not being used.

You must get a cover that is sized right and fits correctly. In order to do that, you will have to take measurements. If you want a cover that provides durability, that’s something to consider. You don’t want a cover made from flimsy material and having to replace it sooner than you want to.

o Rail Rubbers – Rail rubbers or cushions, as they are called, are located on the sides of your playing area. They are used so that the ball can rebound off of them and not get away from the table.

There are other accessories that you can do without or that you don’t need right away. However, the ones just mentioned will help you to have a better game of billiards.

Personal Hygiene And Its Effects On Food Safety, Part 4

Cross contamination is the transfer of pathogens from a source to a high risk meals. If the high risk items are allowed to remain at ambient temperature, the bacteria can grow and illness can result. Sources include raw meats and vegetables with soil contamination, hygiene handlers, pets, packaging and pests..all safety hazards. There are four main contaminants, they are:

  1. Microbial, which are the living microscopic organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and protoctists
  2. Chemical, such as pesticides, agricultural residues, excessive additives / preservatives, vehicle fumes, perfumes and aftershaves.
  3. Physical reflectors to foreign body contamination such as glass or wood from the inside of kitchens, parts of kitchen equipment, packaging materials, bones and shells from products being prepared and items from staff or customers such as jewelery, cigarette ends, plasters, tissues, pen tops, drawing pins, buttons, etc.
  4. Allergenic contamination is the fourth hazard, this includes:

Cereals containing gluten, crustaceans, eggs, fish, peanuts, soybeans, nuts, celery, mustard, sesame seeds, sulfur dioxide and sulfites. Cross contamination can occur when raw products are placed next to high risk items, which is called direct cross contamination. Indirect cross contamination is when high risk meals are contaminated by a vehicle which has been in direct contact with the source. The vehicles can include hands, cloths, knives, forks, containers, preparation boards, work surfaces. When raw meat juices drip onto high risk eats in a fridge, this is another form of direct contamination which affects operations. The ten major causes of food poisoning include:

  1. Preparation too far in advance of service and storage at room temperature
  2. Improper cooling to within the temperature danger zone
  3. Insufficient reheating to less than 75C
  4. Processed or canned meals already contaminated
  5. Inadequate cooking to less than 75C
  6. Insufficient thawing
  7. Cross-contamination
  8. Raw ingredients consumed
  9. Improper hot holding at less than 63C
  10. Infected hygiene handlers attending the workplace without informing the supervisor.

Food preservation works on the promise of removing one or more of bacterial requirements for growth. Bacteria require protein, moisture, warmth and time to grow. One method is by controlling warmth. Use of heat advances growth and will, in most circumstances kill bacteria lead to safety. Cooking to 75C kills bacteria, both pathogens and spoilage microbes. Pasteurisation to a temperature exceeding 63C kills all pathogens, but spores can remain, especially fungal spores which causes milk, of example, to go off even if left unopened in a fridge. Ultra heat treatment (UHT) is very high for a very short period of time (135C for 1 second) This kills all microorganisms and spores and is why UHT products do not have to be refrigerated until opened. The canning industry uses commercial sterilization to kill all microorganisms and spores, especially important with Clostridium botulinum, which, if the spores survived, would germinate and vegetate and release Botox.

This extremely poisonous neurotoxin could kill within minutes if the can's contents was ateen cold. (Cooking to 75C deactivates Botox). Commercial sterilization, or the Botulinum Cook is 121C for> 3 minutes, depending on the thickness of the can and product. Autoclaves, used in hospitals and dentists, use the same temperature for 15 minutes to sterilize their instruments. Cold temperatures can also prevent microbial growth such as -18C or 1 to 4C. At freezing temperatures there is no moisture available for growth, it is held in ice crystals. Most pathogens do not grow in refrigeration temperatures, apart from E coli 0157, Listeria, Yersinia and C botulinum. Spoilage bacteria prefer warmer temperatures for enzymatic activity to occur and to compromise food safety. Most bacteria will not grow in an acidic environment, a pH of below 3.8 is required to prevent growth. The pH scale goes from 1 to 14, where pH 7 is neutral. 1 is classed as very acidic and 14 as very basic (alkaline) Human blood, for example, has a pH of 7.4. So the use of acids such as vinegar, acetic acid, lime or lemon juice are very good preservatives. Microbes require moisture, so if this is removed by dehydration, there will be no growth of spoilage or pathogenic bacteria. Dehydration can be achieved by drying or the addition of salt / sugar to the ingredients.

Salt and sugar use a biological process termed osmosis, where liquid is transferred from an area of ​​high solute concentration to an area of ​​low solute concentration through a semi-permeable membrane. The salt and sugar are the high concentrations and therefore "suck" liquid from a food material. This process is used in curing pork into bacon. Also, if strawberries are covered in dry sugar, liquid will be drawn from the strawberries, making them more firm (The best way to prepare them for strawberry jam, by the way!) Vacuum packing removals oxygen and aerobes will not grow. However, Closridia, which are anaerobes, could grow and there before vacuum packs must be refrigerated to prevent growth and affect operations. Smoking food releases chemicals such as esters, aldehydes and alcohols which act as preservatives. Smoking also dries the surface of food that preventing oxidization and growth of microbes. Chemical preservatives are used in regulated amounts in foodstuffs such as salami, bacon, bottled drinks, etc. For example Potassium Sorbate and Sodium Benzoate.

For further information go to Food Safety .

History of Italian Cooking

When many people think of Italian culture, they think of cuisine. Some of the most popular dishes are pizza and pasta. However, the world of Italian cooking is more than that, and the history of Italian cooking is very diverse. Different regions of Italy have developed their own styles of cooking centered around local ingredient, and other influences throughout history have influenced Italian food.

Culinary History

The history of Italian cooking actually goes back over two thousand years. It flourished during the Roman Empire. During that time, food preparation was very important, though much of the earlier art of cooking has since been lost. After the Roman Empire fell, Italian food started to become more diverse. The different city states throughout the area started to develop their own ways of cooking, as well as their own distinct flavors that came from the foods that grew in the area. Meats, cheese, and even the wine became distinct.

Regional Diversity

The diversity of the history of Italian cooking can be traced back to the different areas where it was conceived. The north utilized Tuscan beef, while in Marches the black truffles became popular. Many Italian cheeses, such as provolone and mozzarella, were developed in the south. Citrus fruits were used in the south as well. Breads and pasta differed from region to region as well.

The south used more pasta like the hard-boiled spaghetti, while in the north softer egg noodles were popular. Milan was known for its risotto. Naples, on the other hand, became known for its pizza. The coastal regions became known for their seafood dishes. Anchovies, lobster, sardines, and swordfish became incorporated into much of the history of Italian cooking.

Outside Influences

Another factor of the history of Italian cooking was the influence of other cultures on the cuisine. Ancient Greek cooking was integrated as part of the dishes, but the Roman Empire also brought in other flavors, such as wheat wine, and fine spices. Ingredients for Italian cooking came as far as China, contributing to the wide variety of flavors and dishes. The island of Sardinian was influenced by the Mediterranean, while Sicily received many influences from North Africa. The southern parts of the country were also affected by influences from the Arabs, especially when it came to the sweets, such as the popular dessert cassata.

A Continuation

Some of the most popular dishes throughout the history of Italian cooking have seen a rebirth. For instance, some believe that pasta was actually brought to Italy from China during the time of Marco Polo. However, this was actually a rediscovery of a food that had been popular in Roman times. That early pasta is not much different than the ones enjoyed around the world today.

The history of Italian cooking continues to evolve, and today there are still distinct differences between the northern and southern regions of the country. The traditions reflect the deep culture and history that originally inspired them. So every time you cook an authentic Italian dish, you are cooking a piece of history.

Accident Damaged Cars For Sale

Accident Damaged Cars are one of the most common type of salvage vehicles available on the open market. These accident damaged cars are usually vehicles that have been taken over by insurance companies for reasons of not having to pay auto body companies from repairing damage that would cost more than the vehicle itself. The insurance companies would rather pay the owner the value of the vehicle that may be considerably less than having the vehicle repaired.

Once the car has been taken by the insurance company it is usually priced out to junk or salvage dealers who tend to either strip the cars and sell the parts or if the car is not damaged to far resale it to the public. Once the accident damaged car for sale is sold it still has a long way to go before it is able to be driven on the open road. When sold these vehicles are deemed un-driven by motor vehicle associations. The vehicles need to go through the process of being repaired and brought back up to standards that each country deems necessary.

Now the repairs are done and you feel that the repairs are all that you need. Well, the vehicle is still not ready for the open road. Meaning, you still will not be able to register the vehicle just yet. Now, you need to have the car inspected. You do not want to drive around a car that is unsafe. I know that I would not. The inspection should be done by an authorized inspection station of the state. This inspection station will tell you if the repairs are up to par. If the repairs are not then they will recommend what repairs are still needed and which are not. If no repairs are not needed then they will give you passing paper work that you take with you to a registration station. If they are still problems that have to be taken care of either the inspection station will take care of it or you will need to take it back to the place were you had the initial work done. Once completed go back and have a final inspection done. Now you are ready for registration.

Accident damaged cars for sale are great deals but you really need to know the process when bringing these cars back to life.